By Adnan Tamime

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Lecithin is a phospholipid, which is sometimes added to concentrated and dried product. The material used in the dairy industry originates from soya bean but has a similar composition to the phospholipids of the milk fat globule membrane. Phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine are the major components. One application of adding lecithin is to ‘instantise’ powders, that is, to improve their dissolution properties, because of its 8 Chapter 1 surfactant properties. A second application is for increasing the heat stability.

However, this difference is somewhat counteracted by the presence of fat in whole milk powder which may hinder foaming and reduce the amount of occluded air. g. , 2007). If one of the milk components is preferentially present on the powder surface, the properties can be changed dramatically. Of particular importance is the amount of fat on the powder surface. The presence of fat renders the powder surface hydrophobic, thus decreasing its wettability and dispersibility. During the drying process, evaporation and drying simultaneously promote the migration of milk constituents, particularly fat, protein and lactose toward the particle surface.

Calcium has a major role in the functional properties of milk products and so knowledge of the chemistry of this metal in these products can help in understanding its importance. 2 Average mineral composition of whole cow’s milk. 09 Arsenic 20–60 Silicon 700 Boron 500–1000 After Flynn & Cashman (1997). 3 Mineral composition of liquid, concentrated and dried milk products. 9 Product Liquid milks Concentrated milks Milk powders Casein and whey protein powders Ca-caseinate After Hargrove & Alford (1974), Posati & Orr (1976), Bassette & Acosta (1988), Jensen (1990), Caric (1993), Australian Dairy Corporation (1999), Anonymous (2003), Boumba et al.

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