By Thomas H. Ollendick
As famous by means of its identify, the point of interest of this booklet is based on an exam of habit treatment with young children in scientific settings. all through, our aim has been to envision theoretical underpinnings, evaluate empirical study, and illustrate medical application for numerous behavioral proce dures with teenagers. In pursuing this objective, we now have defined baby habit remedy as an method in response to empirical technique, de rived from behavioral ideas, and concentrated upon adjustment disor ders of youngsters. The hallmark of such an strategy is its responsibility the level to which the systems and strategies awarded during this textual content are demonstrably responsible needs to be decided at the very least in part via the reader. As scholars of kid habit, we now have develop into sensitized to 2 tendencies in habit remedy with childrens in the course of the coaching of this ebook. First, we've been eager about the easy program of behavioral approaches to young ones, without reference to developmental con siderations. All too often, evaluate innovations and remedy seasoned cedures stumbled on to be beneficial with adults were utilized to little ones in an indiscriminate type. for instance, a few contemporary experiences have tested and assessed the exact same social ability deficits in childrens as in adults (e. g. , loss of eye touch, behind schedule latency of reaction, and shortage of confident commendatory responses). without doubt, ability deficits vary from age to age simply as they range from state of affairs to situation.
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Except for biologically defined drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sex, Hull was not overly specific in delineating the conditions that lead to increased levels of drive. In this regard, N. E. Miller and Dollard (1941), who also proposed a drive reduction model, made a substantial contribution. These investigators proposed that any stimulus that becomes strong enough can take on drive properties. For example, the faint sound of a dripping faucet may go unnoticed during the course of one's day, but during the quiet of the night when one is trying to sleep it can become a highly annoying stimulus, the elimination of which is reinforcing.
The concept of self-efficacy is used to explain the fact that although individuals may have the behavioral skills to resolve a problem situation, they may fail to execute those behaviors because of selfdoubts and lack of confidence in their skills. Frequently, after the completion of a treatment program, children are sent off to use their newly acquired skills. On follow-up, however, the clinician is chagrined to learn that the child has not used those skills in new situations. " This response comes in spite of the fact that the child clearly is motivated to perform the responses, possesses the skills, and has previously performed the responses in the treatment setting.
72) Similar observations were noted by L. C. Robins (1963), who demonstrated that mothers tended to report childrearing practices that conformed to dominant social and cultural attitudes. In her study, parents reported utilizing the permissive principles suggested by Dr. Spock. Children were reported to be fed under self-demand schedules, to be weaned later, to be toilet-trained when "ready," and to be reared under generally "permissive" guidelines. Along similar lines, Chess, Thomas, and Birch (1966) reported that parents inaccurately recalled that certain behavior problems emerged at times that coincided with those predicted by popular theories.
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