By Marcus Tullius Cicero

Cicero's Topica is likely one of the canonical texts on old rhetorical concept. this can be the 1st full-scale observation in this paintings, and the 1st serious variation of the paintings that's proficient by means of an entire research of its transmission.

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Additional info for Cicero: Topica (Oxford Classical Monographs)

Example text

G. B 23, 1398a32–b19). Here the introductory label is apparently meant to guide an associative process that might lead to an argument rather than to give a precise description of (the format of) a ‘premiss’ to be used in a rhetorical syllogism. (iii) A third group of Koinoi t opoi largely resembles the ’ lgwoBanalysis in Rhet. , in that they provide no logical analysis or characterization of a possible type of argument;11 Aristotle occasionally acknowledges that he is drawing on useful material he found in contemporary rhetorical handbooks at his disposal (B 24, 1402a17).

The Topica in Cicero’s Oeuvre 15 taught actual ‘precepts’ of rhetoric. Given the technical use of praecepta,19 this is likely to mean that his teachings must have included instruction about invention. e. a rhetorical training which, though being better than the standard training in the sense indicated, is meant to be useful in the same enviroment as standard rhetoric. This accounts also for the fact that the  siB division, in copying the method of stasiB doctrine, betrays a certain eagerness to beat standard rhetoric with its own weapons.

Since all propositions may be interpreted as formed from a logical predicate which is predicated of a logical subject (1175 b ), and all argument is basically syllogistic (1184 d e)—which is taken to mean reducible to categorical syllogisms as discussed in Aristotle’s Analytica priora30—the process of finding an argument consists essentially in finding an intermediate or middle term by means of which two terms whose connection is in doubt may be connected affirmatively or separated in a negative statement (In Cic.

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