By Indra K. Reddy, Reza Mehvar

Overlaying each crucial point within the improvement of chiral items, this reference offers a high-quality assessment of the formula, biopharmaceutical features, and regulatory concerns impacting the construction of those pharmaceuticals—supporting researchers as they seriously review the pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological features of particular enantiomers and chiral drug compounds.

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Chem. Eng. News 1998, 76, 83–103. DiCicco, R. The future of S-(þ)-ibuprofen and other racemic switches. In Chiral’ 93 USA; Spring Innovations: Stockport, UK, 1993. ; Engel, G. Computational approaches to crystal structure and polymorph prediction. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1999, 51 (S), 1. Mislow, K. Molecular chirality. C. ; John Wiley: New York, 1999; 1–82. N. Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds; John Wiley: New York, 1994; 153–295. W. Relationship between physical properties and crystal structures of chiral drugs.

Density. Racemates can differ in density compared to the pure isomers, and this difference could be as large as 5%. While density differences have been widely reported for chiral drugs [26], they have not been reported for excipients. Ordinarily, the difference is based on the enthalpy change associated with the formation of the racemate. The density differences between the racemate and its isomers could affect the melting point and other properties such as solubility and dissolution rate. Differences in densities could be observed in some cases where the isomers are stable and easily resolvable [27].

Chem. 1996, 6, 1601–1604. Rietveld, H. A profile refinement method for nuclear and magnetic structures. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 1969, 2, 65–71. K. A powder neutron diffraction investigation of the solid phases of iodine heptafluoride (IF7). J. Solid State Chem. 1993, 103, 275–279. J. Ab initio prediction of possible crystal structures for general organic molecules. J. Comput. Chem. 1992, 13, 1171–1183. ; Leusen, F. Computer simulation to predict possible crystal polymorphs. , Boyd, D. ; Wiley-VCH: New York, 1998; 327–365.

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