By C. Carr
This ebook offers an outline of the chemistry of the textiles with emphasis on useful points of the topic. The effect of cloth processing at the atmosphere and the advance of environmentally pleasant processing can also be mentioned
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Since the chain segments in a fibre crystal are more efficiently packed, and more fully extended, than they are in the amorphous regions, the crystalline modulus is generally significantly greater than the amorphous modulus. 26. The simplest model of this type assumes only two material properties — the crystalline and amorphous moduli. Depending on the relative abundance of the two phases, and how they are coupled mechanically, it is possible to predict a variety of results for the tensile modulus of the composite structure.
These chain segments will contribute nothing towards the overall load-bearing capacity of the structure. Those chains that are effective are known as 'tie molecules'. Some of these may be stretched tightly between crystallites, and it is these that will bear the initial stress when the structure is loaded. 22 illustrates different types of chain segment which could emerge from the crystal surfaces. Hearle et al. (1988) attempted to develop quantitative structure models for melt-spun synthetic fibres which incorporate such features.
On the other hand, the imperfect packing of the amorphous chains leads to a lower density. Density is therefore a good indicator of the degree of order, and is typically used as a basis for the scale upon which degree of order is measured. //. Degree of localisation oforder. The two-phase and continuous structure models discussed earlier represent extreme views; in the former there is a clearly denned ordered phase, whereas in the latter there is no such concept, and the 'order' is deemed to permeate the entire structure in a rather diffuse way.
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