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Astronomers have been traditionally the custodians of time, however the discovery that the interval of Earth's rotation isn't really consistent intended that they had to re-examine their simple devices. On a separate course, physicists built atomic clocks and held out the chance of a timekeeping procedure rooted in actual constants.
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1965) allow one to understand why in the dark field image the average level of intensity is different for the fringe patterns along the interfaces (1) and (2) in Fig. 1-29. These interfaces are inclined in the same sense with respect to the electron beam and hence st and s2 are interchanged along 1 and 2. F. if s± = — s2. It is clear that the fringes associated with a pure translation interface (a fringes) have symmetry properties which are different from those of pure inclination interface (3 fringes).
The two crystal parts have a common lattice and therefore the reflections g in one crystal part and — g in the inversion related part are always simultaneously excited with the same s value. Assuming the validity of Friedel's law, which states that the modulus of the structure factors \Fg\ and |jp_g| are the same even in a non-centrosymmetrical crystal, one does not expect any brightness contrast between inversion domains. According to the kinematic theory, this is strictly the case. Such a contrast difference is nevertheless observed (Fig.
Intrinsic stacking fault in a low stacking fault energy Cu-Al alloy. Bright (a) and dark (b) field images are shown. 2 Domain Textures Phase transformations accompanied by a decrease in space-group symmetry usually give rise to fragmentation of the crystal in domains whose structures are related by the symmetry elements lost during the (a) (b) Figure 1-32. Extrinsic stacking fault in silicon formed by the precipitation of self-interstitials. (a) Bright field; (b) dark field (Courtesy de Veirman).
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