By Nils R. Ringertz and Robert E. Savage (Auth.)

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IV-4. The numerical diversity in the way fusion in this single case is quantitated emphasizes the need for standardization. Since (f) or (g) seem most accurately to represent the extent of fusion, they are undoubtedly the best candidates for a standard method. V Mechanism of Cell Fusion A. NONVIRAL AGENTS THAT INDUCE FUSION In the light of observations of occasional spontaneous fusion among cells in vivo and in vitro (Chapter III), it is interesting to note that a number of physical and chemical processes which affect cell surfaces and cell aggregation are known to result in formation of polykaryons.

1972). This property of lysolecithin makes it interesting to note that phospholipase A is found as one of the lysosomal enzymes (Tappel, 1969). Perhaps as a consequence the lysolecithin content of lysosomal membranes is unusually high compared with other cell membranes. Since lysosomes are themselves engaged in so many processes involving membrane fusion, it is tempting to speculate that natural fusion, including fertilization, may involve phospholipase and lysolecithin activity [for example, Ahkong et al.

The usual recipes for Sendai virus-induced cell fusion call for the use of Hanks' or Earle's basal salt solution (BSS) during the fusion process. 8 mM. 5. pH of the Medium Okada (1969) also showed that fusion of ascites cells using Sendai was pH-dependent. , 1972; Yan- B. 0). The disparity may be explained, according to Yanovsky and Loyter (1972), by the fact that at high pH's the buffering anions, phosphate and carbonate, precipitate calcium ions. Thus, in the earlier studies, the apparent decrease in fusion was not a direct function of low hydrogen ion concentration, but of unavailability of calcium ions.

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