By A. Griffin, D. W. Snoke, S. Stringari

This e-book is dedicated to BEC as an interdisciplinary topic, overlaying atomic and molecular physics, laser physics, low temperatures, and astrophysics, and it'll function an in-depth file on fresh growth and should recommend promising learn themes for graduate scholars and researchers in physics.

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D. Landau, J. Phys. USSR 5, 71 (1941). P. Feynman, Phys. , 94, 262 (1954). M. 13. [26] PC. Hohenberg and PC. Martin, Ann. Physics (NY) 34, 291 (1965). [27] G. Baym, in Mathematical Methods of Solid State and Super fluid Theory, ed. C. 121; the argument is reproduced in D. 219 ff. R. M. Kosterlitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. R. 7, C. L. Lebowitz, eds. (Academic, New York, 1983). [29] I. Rudnick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1454 (1978); D J . Bishop and J. Reppy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1727 (1978); E. Webster, G. Webster, and M.

N. Yang, Rev. Mod. Phys. 34, 4 (1962). RW. Anderson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 38, 298 (1966). RW. l5ff. L. Onsager, Suppl. N. Cim. 6, 249 (1949). P. J. Gorter, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1955), p. 17. L. R Pitaevsky, Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 858 (1958). G. Wilson and J. Kogut, Phys. Rep. 12C, 75 (1974). P. Gross, N. Cim. 20, 454 (1961); J. Math. Phys. 4, 195 (1963). R Pitaevsky, Sov. Phys. JETP 13, 451 (1961). T. Frisch, Y. Pomeau, and S. Rica, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1644 (1992). See the contributions of Yu.

If the external object is moving with velocity ye, we must have AE = ye • AP. Therefore ve > c. Using the quasiparticle picture, Khalatnikov [25] derived an expression for the normal fluid density at finite temperatures, based on Gallilean invariance. Suppose the energy of a quasiparticle of momentum p is (Op, and the average occupation number for quasiparticles is n(co) = [exp(co//cT) — I]" 1 . In a two-fluid picture, with superfluid velocity vs and normal fluid velocity vn, the quasiparticle energy in a reference frame moving with the superfluid is (o'p = (op-p'(yn-ys).

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