By Lester Packer

This detailed, state of the art reference provides a close account of the molecular mechanisms underlying the a number of capabilities of biothiols-emphasizing the organic and scientific implications of interactions among oxidants and biothiols.

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Extra resources for Biothiols in Health and Disease (Antioxidants in Health and Disease Series, 2)

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IV Electron Transfer Reactions of Thiyl Radicals A Thermodynamics A thiyl radical RS· may oxidize a substrate (which acts as an electron donor or reductant) in a single-electron transfer reaction: where radical is that obtained on one-electron oxidation of the reductant. The equilibrium [Eq. (14)] will be thermodynamically favorable (K14 > 1, DG14 < 0, DE14 > 0) if the reduction potentials for the two single-electron couples reflect the inequality: where the potentials are midpoint potentials of the couples at pHi (20).

258:103117. 49. Cabelli, D. , and Bielski, B. H. J. (1983) Kinetics and mechanism for the oxidation of ascorbic acid/ascorbate by HO2/O2- radicals. A pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow photolysis study. J. Phys. Chem. 87:18091812. Page 21 2 Thiyl Radicals, Perthiyl Radicals, and Oxidative Reactions Christian Schöneich University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas I Introduction Thiols are highly abundant in biological systems and serve key roles in many biochemical processes such as (1) the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics [1], (2) the binding of transition metals in redox active complexes [2], (3) the folding of proteins and stabilization of protein structure through the formation of disulfide bonds [3], and (4) the activation/inactivation of enzymes via rapid chemical transformation of the mercapto group, for example, by nitrosylation with NO [4].

Anders, Wolfgang Dekant, and Spyridon Vamvakas 135 II. Thiols and Oxidative Stress 8. Strategies for Increasing Cellular Glutathione Alton Meister 165 9. Glutathione Synthesis in Oxidative Stress Henry Jay Forman, RuiMing Liu, and Michael Ming Shi 189 10. Sinusoidal Efflux of Hepatic GSH: Significance, Physiology, and Regulation Neil Kaplowitz, Murad Ookhtens, and Shelly Chi-Loo Lu 213 11. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Donald J. Reed 231 12. Phospholipid Hydroperoxide Glutathione Peroxidase: More Than an Antioxidant Enzyme?

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