By Marinella Astuto, Anna L. Paratore, Antonino Gullo (auth.), Marinella Astuto MD (eds.)

This quantity offers with the fundamental features of anesthesia, in depth care and ache in neonates and youngsters. the subjects lined contain anatomy and body structure, ideas that may be utilized to the remedy of those sufferers, and using "off-label" pharmacological brokers in pediatric perioperative medication. across the world famous directions aimed toward standardizing crucial tactics, reminiscent of the remedy of hypothermia, critical venous catheterization strategies and prevention of catheter-induced infections also are mentioned. The final a part of the ebook is concentrated extra on scientific and technical points of anesthesia induction and tracking. The publication can be an invaluable replace for neonatologists, pediatricians and anesthesiologists of their scientific perform, and an academic software for citizens in those fields.

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26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 47 American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway (2003) Practice guidelines for management of the difficult airway: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway. Anesthesiology 98:1269–1277 Frei FJ, Ummenhofer W (1996) Difficult intubation in paediatrics. Paediatr Anaesth 6:251–263 Shiga T, Wajima Z, Inoue T et al (2005) Predicting difficult intubation in apparently normal patients: a meta-analysis of bedside screening test performance.

In these cases keeping the laryngeal mask airway in situ should be considered, after thorough deliberation upon the length and location of the surgery, intraoperative airway protection and postoperative airway edema. 2. Endotracheal Tubes: Uncuffed vs. Cuffed Historically much controversy existed and still exists as to whether the ideal ETT is cuffed or uncuffed. Current research has demonstrated various shortcomings in the design of pediatric ETTs, including among others the distance from cuff to tip, the design and material for the cuff, the length of the tube, and the length the markings.

The ETT exchanger is less bulky and irritating than a bougie. Future Directions Definitions of a difficult airway specific to the pediatric population are needed, as extrapolations from adult definitions are not always applicable. Also, prospective studies concerning the incidence of difficult face-mask ventilation, intubation and laryngoscopy, and the associated risk factors would help current and future practitioners to successfully approach the difficult pediatric airway. References 1. 2. 3.

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