By Charles White
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The FCR is very useful for pointing the engineer in the direction of a specific fault. However, the faults detected may be limited by the level of self-diagnosis designed into the vehicle ECM, and other test equipment may be required to pinpoint the actual fault. FCRs come in many shapes and sizes (and indeed in many price ranges) and could generally be divided into three levels. At the most basic level, the FCR may do little more than interface with the SO connector and read codes as flash codes.
Oxygen sensor. Secondary air system. Fuel evaporation system. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system. Diesel englnes are subject to the same regulations and objectives, but obviously different components, such as glow plugs, are monitored to interact with the relevant technology employed on each system. The ISO, the SAE and a plethora of transport and environmentally-concernednongovernmental organisations have argued for further and consistent regulations. The US "Clean Air Acts" have adopted the CAR8 standards as a mmirnurn level of protection for pudic health and welkbeing; similar legbslation has been brought into be~ngby many local snd national governments since 1968.
Trainingcourses Fault diagnosis then, and your method of diagnosis, will largely depend upon the equipment available. and your expertise. There is a definite trade-off in time against cost. The greater the level of investment in equipment and training, the speedier the diagnosis. The less investment, the longer it will take. Obvious, really! Within the confines of this Chapter, we will look at the Fault Code Reader and other equipment suitable for testing the various components of the Engine Management System.
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