By Wolfgang Demtröder

 

This creation to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been built over the past centuries through many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical aspect by means of the advent of quantum physics to the enough description of micro-particles.

It illustrates the wave version of debris by means of many examples and indicates the bounds of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its strength for spectroscopy is printed in additional aspect and specifically lasers as smooth spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra thoroughly.

Many examples and issues of recommendations should still result in the reader to an severe energetic cooperation.

 

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Additional resources for Atoms, molecules and photons: An introduction to atomic-, molecular- and quantum-physics

Example text

The average number of emitted electrons per single incident particle is called the coefficient of secondary emission. It depends on the material, the angle of incidence and on the kind of incident particles and their energy. 4. Secondary emission plays an important role in many optical and spectroscopic devices. One example is the photomultiplier (Fig. 42), where the incident light releases electrons from the cathode (photoeffect), which are then accelerated by an electric field and + A or e − e− e− e− α Fig.

33a). The figure shows that only 1/8 of the volume of each atom is inside the elementary cell. This means that NE = 8 × 1/8 = 1. 52 . 61a) (2r0 )3 2. Body-centered Cubic Crystal Here an additional atom is sitting at the center of the primitive cubic cell, which touches the neighboring atoms at√ the corners along the triad axis, so that 4r0 = a 3. 68 . 74 . 61c) This shows that the face centered cubic crystal has the highest packing density. 61), where VE is determined by X-ray diffraction and NE from the crystal structure.

3). 1 Cathode Rays and Kanalstrahlen Investigations of gas discharges by J. Plucker (1801– 1868), Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (1824–1914), Joseph John Thomson (1856–1940), Phillip Lenard (1862– 1947) (Nobel Prize 1905), and many others have all contributed much to our understanding of the electric structure of atoms. It is worthwhile to note that the essential experimental progress was only possible after the improvement of vacuum technology (the invention of the mercury diffusion pump, for example, allowed one to generate vacua down to 10−6 hPa).

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