By Richard G. Hovannisian
The UCLA convention sequence «Historic Armenian towns and Provinces» has been geared up to discover the historic, political, cultural, spiritual, social, and monetary legacy of a humans rooted at the Armenian Plateau for 3 millennia. Armenian Van/Vaspurakan is the 1st of the convention court cases to be released, in view of the truth that the realm round Lake Van is the cradle of Armenian civilization.
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Additional info for Armenian Van Vaspurakan (UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series)
The gradually intensifying inflows of European capital destroyed the small producers in the Empire and dragged the domestic economy into an unending cycle of debt (İslamoğlu, 1987). This was coupled with the growing military superiority of the European states, which did not leave any room for the Ottoman state to develop independent international policies. This situation forced the Ottoman state to adopt a ‘policy of balancing’; that is, playing one great international power off against another (Jelavich and Jelavich, 1986: 25).
In this sense of ‘middle class’, the income level, educational status or occupational configuration of the middle class can vary from one society to another. But, regardless of all these factors, what locates all of these citizens in the ‘middle’ is their socio-economically advantageous position vis-à-vis other labourers because of their ability to make use of the benefits of the social state. Moving from this point to a more abstract level, it can be said that the ‘middle class’ is constituted by those citizens who, in terms of selling labour power in the market, share the same position as all ‘workers’ or ‘labourers’ with regard to the relations of production.
Indeed, Armenians and Greeks are no longer a significant part of the social life in Turkey; there has not been any consistent contact or conflict between the CSbook:Layout 1 8/4/10 6:49 PM Page 37 THE HISTORY OF ‘EXCLUSIVE RECOGNITION’ 37 Muslim population and these peoples in the daily life of Turkish cities or towns for half a century. Despite this situation, the categories ‘Greek’ and ‘Armenian’ are still imbued with negative stereotypes in the cognitive worlds of many Turkish citizens. 1 The otherisation of both Greeks and Armenians has served the purpose of exhibiting the distinctiveness and glory of the Turkish nation (Akçam, 1995; Göl, 2005).
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