By Grahame Smillie

The speedy growth of electronic communications, fairly within the fields of television and cellular phones doesn't overide the necessity for a transparent realizing of analogue frequencies. furthermore, analogue expertise will play a tremendous function in communications good into the twenty first century.

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It results in increased bandwidth requirements, and less power in the desired sidebands. A typical overmodulation waveform is shown in Fig. 7. 45 mV. Modulation depth 31 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 + AAAAAAAAAAA+' Modulating frequency -ILVVVVVVVVVVVV 0 -2 Carrier frequency 0 +4~ +1 i +2 i' +3 i ..... V V -3 --4 Fig. 998% This e x a m p l e d e m o n s t r a t e s h o w o v e r m o d u l a t i o n can take place. 3 Power in the sidebands and carrier frequency A second important parameter is the actual power that exists in each sideband and the amount of power that exists in the carrier.

This construction is sometimes referred to as a coaxial tube. 6 Major group carrier frequencies and output frequency bands Major group No. 2548 ! 2052 GRI ; A2044 312 ~/ [SG 8 Group lz--I 1804 :/11796 translation I / ISG 7 CH 12 ,. ~ :,-:t 60 Channel translation 12 channels , / 1548 I Z.... SG 6 l 1308 1300 SG 5 1060 1052 SG 4 812 804 SG 3 564 552 SG 2 312 Z :/ 4420 4028 / MG 1 ! t I ! ) ) ,/ ! ! 312 Major group translation 2700 channels !. . . Supergroup translation 900 channels Fig. 5 Line graph for a 12 MHz coaxial system For a high-capacity 12 MHz coaxial cable system two tubes are used, one for each direction of transmission.

7; the total loss that is caused by the local telephone exchange and the national dial exchange is 10 dB. As can be seen in the figure, the level at the audio-in point relative to the 0 TLP is - 1 0 dBr. The loss presented to the signal by the channel is 27 dB, hence the level at the output of the channel translation stage relative to the 0 TLP is - 3 7 dBr. The group translation stage presents a loss of 5 dB to the signal, hence the level at the output of the group translation stage relative to the 0 TLP is - 4 2 dBr.

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