By Rakesh Bajpai, Aleš Prokop, Mark Zappi

Over the earlier century, the vast majority of chemical and effort wishes of our commercial society has originated from fossilized carbon resources (coal, crude oil, ordinary gas). more and more, there's a cognizance that usage of the fossilized carbon resources has antagonistic environmental results within the kind of expanding focus of greenhouse gases. we're additionally turning into conscious of the constrained nature of those assets. hence, enormous efforts are being made to supply chemical compounds and fuels from renewable assets resembling wooded area items, agricultural residues and plant items. All of those platforms catch solar power and atmospheric carbon dioxide as part of the usual carbon cycle. severe examine efforts also are underway, focusing on cultivation of photosynthetic autotrophic microbes for the construction of biomass and lipids. during this type, algae seems to supply the main power for shooting solar power and atmospheric carbon dioxide and offering adequate amounts of biomass/lipids which can offset the fossilized carbon usage in a significant demeanour with no impacting nutrition output adversely. although, numerous advances, either technologically in addition to politically, are wanted sooner than we will discover its complete capability. it's also transparent biorefinery process needs to be undertaken so that it will harvest renewable strength and chemical substances from algae economically. This edited, multi-authored quantity on Algal Biorefineries will record new advances concerning algae-based technology.

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1983), at conditions still conducive to photovoltaic applications (ASTM 2003). gov/solar/pubs/redbook/) for its solar radiation measurements. 5, the conversion factors and percent energy calculations do not vary significantly between ground and outer-space data (Table 2). 5 but not below (Mecherikunnel et al. 1983). These tabulated values provide an updated tool which should help prevent the use of erroneous conversion factors (Kania and Giacomelli 2001). A. D. Holland and J. M. Dragavon 34 Table 2 Einstein-to-Joules conversion factors cEJ and Percent energy in the PAR region.

Dragavon Abstract The prospect of autotrophic (or light-driven) algal biomass production as a sustainable substitute for fossil feedstocks has yet to fulfill its potential. As a likely cause, the inability to robustly account for algal biomass production rates has prevented the derivation of satisfactory mass balances for the simple parameterization of bioreactors. The methodology presented here aims at resolving this shortcoming. Treating photons as a substrate continuously fed to algae provides the grounds to define an autotrophic yield ФDW, in grams of dry weight per mole of photons absorbed, as an operating parameter.

As a contrast, the work presented here uses the same mechanistic model to derive bioreactor characteristics enabling highest yields under high irradiance. Indeed, in a dense algal culture, high speeds across the photic zone allows for high frequency light-dark fluctuations, which therefore reduce photon flux per cell to levels conducive to high yield biomass production. Through deriving target bioreactor properties from strain attributes, this new paradigm provides a reliable framework to estimate outdoor productivities from yields determined experimentally under low light.

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