By Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard

The volumes during this sequence conceal the development and innovation in optical and electron microscopy at a primary point. it's geared toward microscopists and researchers not just drawn to microscope instrumentation but in addition in purposes starting from organic suggestions to fabrics study and business inspection

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Qr\) άξ άη nrl expi — Ί2πΙϊρξ I άξ exp — \2nkqr\ I άη = exp(-(π/cpr 0 ) 2 )exp(-(π/c^r 0 ) 2 ) = exp( — (nkôr0)2) (18) H. LICHTE 46 with the angular distance δ = (p2 + q2)i/2 between the two points under consideration. Note that the degree of coherence does not depend on the actual position of P x and P2 but only on their mutual angular distance δ. In the following it is assumed that during imaging of the object plane the degree of coherence between two points is unchanged in any image plane.

10 Numerically reconstructed image wave from an MgO crystal. The hologram was scanned by a densitometer camera and the digitized data of optical density were fed into the computer. All reconstruction steps were performed numerically; amplitude and phase can be displayed on a monitor or evaluated numerically. Example reconstructed by Franke (1986). A: Reconstructed area of the MgO hologram. B: Only the framed part of the calculated Fourier spectrum was used for reconstruction. C: Amplitude, and D: Phase of the reconstructed MgO image wave.

Light-optical reconstruction of the electron image wave For the light optical reconstruction one uses the fact that in coherent illumination the object plane and the back focal plane, as well as the back focal plane and the image plane, are mutually related by a Fourier transform. Assuming that the transparency of the hologram for a transmitted light hologram reconstruction lens aperture image FIG. 7 Schematic arrangement for light-optical reconstruction of the hologram. The laser light wave transmitted through the hologram is diffracted into three waves; the ( + 1 ) sideband wave is a light-optical copy of the original electron image wave.

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